> Philosophy of Buddhism is Self-Contradictory
> Concept of God
> Prophet Muhammad in Buddhist Scriptures
Historical criticism has proved that the
original teachings of Buddha can never be known. It seems that Gautama
Buddha’s teachings were memorized by his disciples. After Buddha’s death a
council was held at Rajagaha so that the words of Buddha could be recited
and agreed upon. There were differences of opinion and conflicting memories
in the council. Opinion of Kayshapa and Ananda who were prominent disciples
of Buddha were given preference. A hundred years later, a second council at
Vesali was held. Only after 400 years, after the death of Buddha were his
teachings and doctrines written down. Little attention was paid regarding
its authenticity, genuineness and purity.
Buddhist Scriptures can be
divided into Pali and Sanskrit Literature:
The Pali literature was monopolized by the Hinayana
sect of Buddhism.
The most important of all Buddhist scriptures is the
TRI-PITAKA which is in Pali text. It is supposed to be
the earliest recorded Buddhist literature which was
written in the 1st Century B.C.
The TRI-PITAKA or Three Baskets of law is composed of 3
This is a book of discipline and mainly deals
with rules of the order.
Sutta Pitaka: ‘Discourses’
It is a collection of sermons and discourses of
Gautama Buddha and the incidents in his life. It is
the most important Pitaka and consists of five
divisions known as Nikayas. Dhammapada is the most
famous Pali literature and contains aphorisms and
short statements covering the truth.
Abhidhamma: ‘Analysis of Doctrine’
This third basket contains meta physical
doctrines and is known as Buddhist meta physicals.
It is an analytical and logical elaboration of the
first two pitakas. It contains analysis and
exposition of Buddhist doctrine.
Sanskrit literature was preferred by the Mahayana.
Sanskrit literature has not been reduced to a collection
or in Cannon like the Pali literature. Thus much of the
original Sanskrit literature has been lost. Some were
translated into other languages like Chinese and are now
being re-translated into Sanskrit.
Mahavastu: ‘Sublime Story’
Mahavastu is the most famous work in Sanskrit
which has been restored from its Chinese
translation. It consists of voluminous collection of
Lalitavistara is one of the holiest of the
Sanskrit literature. It belongs to the first century
C.E., 500 years after the death of Buddha. It
contains the miracles which the superstition loving
people have attributed to Buddha.
Teachings of Buddha
The principal teachings of Gautama Buddha can be
summarised in what the Buddhists call the ‘Four Noble
There is suffering and misery in life.
The cause of this suffering and misery is desire.
Suffering and misery can be removed by removing
Desire can be removed by following the Eight Fold
The Noble Eight Fold Path
Nirvana' literally means "blowing out" or
"extinction". According to Buddhism, this is the
ultimate goal of life and can be described in various
words. It is a cessation of all sorrows, which can be
achieved by removing desire by following the Eight Fold
Philosophy of Buddhism is
As mentioned earlier, the main teachings of
Buddhism are summarised in the Four Noble Truths:
(i) There is suffering and misery in life.
(ii) The cause of suffering and misery is desire.
(iii) Suffering and misery can be removed by removing desire.
(iv) Desire can be removed by following the Eight Fold Path.
This Philosophy of Buddhism is self-contradictory or self-defeating because
the third truth says ‘suffering and misery can be removed by removing
desire’ and the fourth truth says that 'desire can be removed by following
the Eight Fold Path'.
Now, for any person to follow Buddhism he should first have the desire to
follow the Four Noble Truths and the Eight Fold Path. The Third great Noble
Truth says that desire should be removed. Once you remove desire, how can we
follow the Fourth Noble truth i.e. follow the Eight Fold Path unless we have
a desire to follow the Eight Fold Path. In short desire can only be removed
by having a desire to follow the Eight Fold Path. If you do not follow the
Eight Fold Path, desire cannot be removed. It is self contradicting as well
as self-defeating to say that desire will only be removed by continuously
having a desire.
Concept of God
Buddha was silent about the existence or
non-existence of God. It may be that since India was drowned in idol worship
and anthropomorphism that a sudden step to monotheism would have been
drastic and hence Buddha may have chosen to remain silent on the issue of
God. He did not deny the existence of God. Buddha was once asked by a
disciple whether God exists? He refused to reply. When pressed, he said that
if you are suffering from a stomach ache would you concentrate on relieving
the pain or studying the prescription of the physician. "It is not my
business or yours to find out whether there is God – our business is to
remove the sufferings of the world".
Buddhism provided Dhamma or the ‘impersonal law’ in place of God. However
this could not satisfy the craving of human beings and the religion of
self-help had to be converted into a religion of promise and hope. The
Hinayana sect could not hold out any promise of external help to the people.
The Mahayana sect taught that Buddha’s watchful and compassionate eyes are
on all miserable beings, thus making a God out of Buddha. Many scholars
consider the evolution of God within Buddhism as an effect of Hinduism.
Many Buddhists adopted the local god and thus the religion of ‘No-God’ was
transformed into the religion of ‘Many-Gods’ – big and small, strong and
weak and male and female. The ‘Man-God’ appears on earth in human form and
incarnates from time to time. Buddha was against the caste-system prevalent
in the Hindu society.
Prophet Muhammad in Buddhist Scriptures
the advent of a Maitreya
Buddhist books contain this prophecy. It is in Chakkavatti Sinhnad
Suttanta D. III, 76:
"There will arise
in the world a Buddha named Maitreya (the benevolent one) a holy
one, a supreme one, an enlightened one, endowed with wisdom in conduct,
auspicious, knowing the universe:
"What he has
realized by his own supernatural knowledge he will publish to this
universe. He will preach his religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at
its climax, glorious at the goal, in the spirit and the letter. He will
proclaim a religious life, wholly perfect and thoroughly pure; even as I
now preach my religion and a like life do proclaim. He will keep up the
society of monks numbering many thousands, even as now I keep up a society
of monks numbering many hundreds".
According to Sacred Books of the East volume 35
"It is said
that I am not an only Buddha upon whom the leadership and order is
dependent. After me another Buddha maitreya of such and such
virtues will come. I am now the leader of hundreds, he will be the leader
According to the Gospel of Buddha by Carus pg. 217
and 218 (From Ceylon sources):
said to the Blessed One, ‘Who shall teach us when
thou art gone?'
Blessed one replied, 'I am not the first Buddha who
came upon the earth nor shall I be the last. In due
time another Buddha will arise in the world, a holy
one, a supremely enlightened one, endowed with
wisdom in conduct, auspicious, knowing the universe,
an incomparable leader of men, a master of angels
and mortals. He will reveal to you the same eternal
truths, which I have taught you. He will preach his
religion, glorious in its origin, glorious at the
climax and glorious at the goal. He will proclaim a
religious life, wholly perfect and pure such as I
now proclaim. His disciples will number many
thousands while mine number many hundreds.'
said, 'How shall we know him?'
one replied, 'He will be known as Maitreya'."
Sanskrit word ‘Maitreya’ or its
equivalent in Pali ‘Metteyya’
means loving, compassionate, merciful and
benevolent. It also means kindness and
friendliness, sympathy, etc. One Arabic word
which is equivalent to all these words is ‘Rahmat’.
In Surah Al-Anbiya:
"We sent thee not,
but as a mercy for all creatures."
Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) was
called the merciful, which is ‘Maitri’.
words Mercy and Merciful are mentioned in the
Holy Qur’an no less than 409 times.
chapter of the Glorious Qur’an, except Chapter
9, i.e. Surah Taubah begins with the beautiful
formula, 'Bismillah Hir-Rahman Nir-Rahim',
which means 'In the name of Allah, Most
Gracious, Most Merciful'.
Word Muhammad is also spelt as ‘Mahamet’
or ‘Mahomet’ and in various other ways in
different languages. The word ‘Maho’ or ‘Maha’
in Pali and Sanskrit mean Great and Illustrious
and ‘Metta’ means mercy. Therefore
‘Mahomet’ means ‘Great Mercy’.
Buddha’s doctrine was
Esoteric and Exoteric
to Sacred Books of the East, volume 11, pg. 36 Maha-Parinibbana Sutta
chapter 2 verse 32:
"I have preached
the truth without making any distinction between exoteric and esoteric
doctrine, for in respect of truths, Ananda, the Tathagata
has no such thing as the closed fist of a teacher, who keeps something
Muhammad (pbuh) on
the commandment of Almighty God delivered the message and doctrine without
making any distinction between esoteric and exoteric. The Qur'an was
recited in public in the days of the Prophet and is being done so till
date. The Prophet had strictly forbidden the Muslims from hiding the
Devoted Servitors of the Buddhas
Sacred Books of the East volume 11 pg. 97 Maha-Parinibbana Sutta
Chapter 5 verse 36:
"Then the Blessed
one addressed the brethren, and said, ‘Whosoever, brethren have been
Arahat-Buddhas through the long ages of the past, they were
servitors just as devoted to those Blessed ones as Ananda has been to me.
And whosoever brethren shall be the Arahat-Buddhas of the future,
there shall be servitors as devoted to those Blessed ones as Ananda has
been to me’."
The Servitor of
Buddha was Ananda. Muhammad (pbuh) also had a servitor by the name Anas
(r.a.) who was the son of Malik. Anas (r.a...) was presented to the
Prophet by his parents. Anas (r.a...) relates: "My mother said to
him, 'Oh Messenger of God, here is your little servant'." Further Anas
relates, "I served him from the time I was 8 years old and the Prophet
called me his son and his little beloved". Anas (r.a...) stayed by
the Prophet in peace and in war, in safety as well as in danger till the
end of his life.
Anas (r.a.), even though he was only
11 years old stayed beside the Prophet during the battle of Uhud where the
Prophet’s life was in great danger.
Even during the
battle of Honain when the Prophet was surrounded by the enemies who were
archers, Anas (r.a...) who was only 16 years old stood by the
Anas (R) can surely
be compared with Ananda who stood by Gautam Buddha when the mad elephant
Six Criteria for Identifying
the Gospel of Buddha by Carus pg. 214:
"The Blessed one
said, ‘There are two occasions on which a Tathagata’s appearance
becomes clear and exceedingly bright. In the night Ananda, in which a
Tathagata attains to the supreme and perfect insight, and in the
night in which he passes finally away in that ultra passing which leaves
nothing whatever of his earthly existence to remain.’ "
According to Gautam
Buddha, following are the six criteria for identifying a
A Buddha attains supreme and perfect
insight at night-time.
On the occasion of his complete
enlightenment he looks exceedingly bright
A Buddha dies a natural
He dies at night-time.
He looks exceedingly bright before his
After his death a Buddha ceases to
exist on earth.
Now see the following six points:
attained supreme insight and Prophethood at night-time.
According to Surah
Dukhan: "By the books that
makes thing clear – We sent it down during a blessed night." [Al-Qur'an
According to Surah
Al-Qadar: "We have indeed
revealed this (message) in the night of power." [Al-Qur'an
Muhammad (pbuh) instantly felt his
understanding illumined with celestial light.
Muhammad (pbuh) died a natural
According to Ayesha (r.a.), Muhammad
(pbuh) expired at night-time. When he was dying there was no oil in the
lamp and his wife Ayesha (r.a.) had to borrow oil for the
According to Anas (r.a.), Muhammad
(pbuh) looked exceedingly bright in the night of his death.
After the burial of Prophet Muhammad
(pbuh) he was never seen again in his bodily form on this
Buddhas are only Preachers
Dhammapada, Sacred Books of East vol 10 pg. 67:
Jathagatas (Buddhas) are only Preachers."
The Qur’an says in
"Therefore do thou give admonition, for thou art one to
admonish. Thou art not one to manage (men's) affairs." [Al-Qur'an
Identification of Maitreya
Dhammapada, Mattaya Sutta, 151:
"The promised one
Compassionate for the whole
A messenger of peace, a
The most successful in the
The Maitreya as
a Preacher of morals will be:
Gentle and noble
As a king to creatures
An example to others in deeds
and in words".